If you’ve been to Central Europe, there’s little doubt you’ve encountered their work: two friends and the architecture firm they forged together. They weren’t simply builders and designers of national theaters in the decades around the beginning of the 20th century; no, they were the builders and designers of national theaters.
Major architecture firms always want to leave their mark. They have their iconic buildings, perhaps a skyscraper or two in a major city if they’re lucky. But as much as skyscrapers and large bridges can serve to define a cityscape or skyline, they aren’t truly national symbols.
That’s what made Fellner & Helmer different. This Vienna-based duo constructed 39 theaters in 11 countries. These theaters are truly national landmarks, generally state-funded and intended to symbolize the power of those states, along with the tremendous power of the arts. Fellner & Helmer may not have constructed the iconic Vienna State Opera House or Volksoper, but they are more a part of Vienna’s architectural legacy than almost anyone.
How did these two men come to wield such power and influence over these vital buildings? It all began in Vienna.
From a Handshake to a Near-Monopoly
One of the most peculiar aspects of the early history of this firm is that it was never legally created at all. Yes, one of the most powerful and influential architecture firms of all time never technically existed. The company was based entirely on an agreement between its two founders made in front of a notary. Needless to say, it was quite an inauspicious beginning for such an architectural powerhouse.
From their first working theater, the Népszínház in Budapest, which has sadly since been demolished, the duo were pioneers. Their second theater, Mahen Theatre in Brno, was the first in Europe to have electrical lighting. Through the decades, their style wound through the near-baroque, to ultimately arrive at the comparatively minimalist facade of Vienna’s Akademietheater, completed in 1913.
Throughout their career, their ornamentation drew on inspiration from church facades, as anyone who travels through the former Austro-Hungarian Empire might notice. As their skill and fame progressed, the two pursued their artistic vision for a unique mix of the functional and ornamental. They took the radical step of moving the vestibule, auditorium and stage further apart, and began to see them as three distinct spaces; previously, the three had been much more thoroughly linked.
The firm averaged one completed theater for every year it constructed them, an astonishing level of productivity for two architects. That’s especially true when one considers that the firm also designed palaces, parks, castles, bath houses, hotels and other structures during this time.
My Past / Flickr / CC BY-SA
Leaving a Mark on Central Europe
While their particular style may not have left a named architectural style or fall under a specific movement, the similarities one can notice between each theater are important. This is because they serve to help bind together the former Austro-Hungarian Empire, not to mention much of Central Europe outside the empire with stylistic echoes.
Much as with other public buildings like train stations, the presence of a Fellner & Helmer theater house is a reminder of place and historical tradition. As with food, culture and language, these pieces of history help define Central Europe today.
On top of this legacy, both men were very much products of Vienna. Only Fellner was born in Vienna, while Helmer was born in Harburg, Germany. But both came to see Vienna as their physical and artistic home. Vienna left its mark on them and they undoubtedly left their mark on Vienna, with eight buildings built in the city by the pair (including one that was built by Fellner before their partnership.)
In this way, Fellner & Helmer are also defining figures for Vienna’s European influence during the Belle Époque. They took their inspiration from the city and spread it for hundreds of kilometers in every direction, helping to solidify Vienna’s place as the true heart of Central Europe.
Jiuguang Wang / Flickr / CC BY-SA
Have you ever been to a theater designed by Fellner & Helmer? What impression did it create and how has their work shaped your idea of Central Europe? Let us know what you think in the comments below.
About the Author: Eric is a writer, traveler, historian, and music lover who’s spent the past few years based in Budapest and Sofia. Over several trips to Vienna, his fascination with opera has only grown. In particular, he always enjoys seeing The Marriage of Figaro and Macbeth.